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Category Archive: Rulers

Alfred the Great – King of Wessex

Alfred the Great - King of Wessex

Alfred the Great – King of Wessex

Alfred the Great was the King of Wessex in 871-899. He saved part of England from falling under the control of Denmark. At the time, England was divided into several small kingdoms, and Wessex was one of those. He was one of England’s best-loved kings. He established the English monarchy and alone among all English rulers bears the title “the Great.”
Alfred was born in 849 at Wantage, Berkshire. He was the youngest, the fifth son of Ethelwulf, king of Wessex.
After his father’s death in 858, Ethelbald succeeded to the whole kingdom. After his death in 860 his brothers Ethelberht (860-65), then Ethelred (865-71), ruled in turn. During his older brother Ethelred’s reign, Alfred had helped fight off an initial invasion of the Great Army into Wessex. In 871 after the death of Ethelred Alfred became king.
Several English kingdoms fell to the Danes, who were also called Vikings. In 871 and again between 876 and 878 Alfred’s Wessex forces fought against the invaders.
Alfred’s son and grandsons eventually gained control over all of England.
Alfred the Great died on October 26, 899
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Benito Mussolini – Italian dictator

Benito Mussolini – Italian dictator

Benito Mussolini – Italian dictator

Benito Mussolini was an Italian politician and statesman, writer, National fascist party (NFP) leader, the dictator, the leader (Duce), who led Italy as prime minister in 1922-1943. He was the First Marshal of the Empire (30 March 1938). After 1936 his official title was His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Duce of Fascism and the founder of the empire. Mussolini was one of the founders of Italian Fascism. He led Italy into three successive wars, the last of which overturned his regime.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was born on July 29, 1883 in Predappio, Emilia Romagna. His father was a blacksmith and an ardent Socialist, and his mother was a schoolteacher.
In 1900 Mussolini became a member of the Socialist party. In 1901 he took his diploma di maestro and then taught secondary school briefly.
In 1904 Mussolini became engaged in politics. The young man had an amazing oratorical abilities and strong character, which helped him to get to state heights. He attacked clericalism, militarism, and reformism. In each attack he was extremist and violent. His Marxism was greatly influenced by Nietzsche’s reactionary modernism and Social Darwinism, Spengler’s anthropological and historical pessimism, and Sorel’s revolutionary syndicalism.
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Augustus – first Roman emperor

Augustus – first Roman emperor

Augustus – first Roman emperor


Augustus was the first emperor of Rome. His reign became known as the Augustan Age. The Roman world entered an era of wealth, peace, and cultural achievement. He headed the empire for 40 years.
Augustus was born on September 23, 63 BC. His original name was Gaius Octavius. His father held several political offices and had earned a fine reputation. He died when Octavius was 4 years old. His mother, Atia, was Julius Caesar’s niece. The Roman leader, Julius Caesar, before his death in 44 BC had chosen him to be the next leader. From then on he was called Octavian. Octavian’s enemy in his rise to power was Mark Antony.
In 32 Octavian declared war against Queen Cleopatra of Egypt. Octavian won a decisive naval victory, which left him master of the entire Roman world. The following year Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and Octavian annexed Egypt to Rome. According to historians, Octavian’s victory over Antony marked the beginning of the Roman Empire.
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Mao Zedong – Chinese Communist leader

Mao Zedong - Chinese Communist leader

Mao Zedong – Chinese Communist leader

Mao Zedong was a Chinese state and political figure of XX century, the main theoretician of Maoism. Having joined in his youth the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), in 1930s Zedong became the leader of the Communist areas in Jiangxi Province. After the Long March he managed to take the leading positions in the CCP. Mao ruled China from 1949 until 1976.
Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893 in the village of Shaoshan in southeastern China. He was the son of a prosperous farmer from the Hunan Province in central China.
Mao briefly served in the army during the Chinese Revolution (1911-12).
After school he worked as a library assistant at National Beijing University. There he became involved in the May Fourth Movement of 1919.
In July 1921 Mao was one of 12 men who formed the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in Shanghai. He started a communist revolution among peasants in the countryside.
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Alexander II – Russian emperor

Alexander II – Russian emperor

Alexander II – Russian emperor

Alexander II was an emperor of Russia from 1855 to 1881. He is called the ‘‘czar liberator’’ because he emancipated the serfs in 1861.
Alexander Nicholayevich Romanov was born on April 17, 1818 in Moscow. He was the eldest son of Nicholas I. The boy’s principal tutor was Russian poet and courtier, Vasili Zhukovski. Alexander spoke four foreign languages – German, French, English, and Polish.
Alexander traveled extensively in Russia and abroad from an early age. In 1837 Alexander became the first emperor to visit Siberia.
In 1838 Alexander fell in love with a princess from the small German state of Hesse-Darmstadt during his trip to Europe. In April 1841 Alexander married Maria Alexandrovna. They had eight children, two of whom died young.
From 1840 Alexander was a member of the state council and from 1842 of the committee of the ministers.
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Sissi – favorite empress of Austria

Sissi - favorite empress of Austria

Sissi – favorite empress of Austria

Duchess Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie was a Bavarian princess, the wife of Emperor Franz Joseph I. She became the Empress of Austria on April 24, 1854 (date of marriage); on June 8, 1867 she became Queen of Hungary. Her family and friends called her Sissi. She was the most beautiful Empress of Austria. Her life was one of the few stories of true love among the monarchs, which became one of the favorite plots for books and movies.
Elisabeth was born on December 24, 1837 in Munich Palace. She was the second daughter of Duke Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria (1808-1888) and Marie Ludovika Wilhelmine (1808-1892), daughter of the King of Bavaria, Maximilian I. The newborn girl had a tooth. According to legend it means a happy life. Napoleon also had a tooth when he was born. Queen Elizabeth of Prussia became the godmother of the girl. Sissi spent her childhood in Munich in the summer estate where she had her own menagerie. Elizabeth’s parents lived in their own way. Duke Maximilian rarely spent his time with the family and children were educated by their mother.
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Princess Diana – Diana Spencer

Princess Diana - Diana Spencer

Princess Diana – Diana Spencer

Diana, Princess of Wales was the most charismatic and publicly adored member of the British royal family. From 1981 to 1996, she was the first the wife of Prince Charles of Wales, heir to the British throne. She was widely known as Princess Diana, Lady Diana and Lady Di. In 2002, according to the survey, Diana took the third place in the list of one hundred greatest Britons in history. She became the most photographed woman in the world.
Diana, Princess of Wales was born Diana Frances Spencer on July 1, 1961 in Sandringham, Norfolk. She was the third of the Lord and Lady Althorp’s four children. Her parents got divorced when she was very young. In 1976 the Earl Spencer married Raine Legge, the daughter of British romance novelist Barbara Cartland. His children and their stepmother had a stormy relationship. Diana went to a private girls’ school in Switzerland. When she returned to England, she worked as a kindergarten teacher.
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