Benito Mussolini – Italian dictator
Benito Mussolini was an Italian politician and statesman, writer, National fascist party (NFP) leader, the dictator, the leader (Duce), who led Italy as prime minister in 1922-1943. He was the First Marshal of the Empire (30 March 1938). After 1936 his official title was His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Duce of Fascism and the founder of the empire. Mussolini was one of the founders of Italian Fascism. He led Italy into three successive wars, the last of which overturned his regime.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was born on July 29, 1883 in Predappio, Emilia Romagna. His father was a blacksmith and an ardent Socialist, and his mother was a schoolteacher.
In 1900 Mussolini became a member of the Socialist party. In 1901 he took his diploma di maestro and then taught secondary school briefly.
In 1904 Mussolini became engaged in politics. The young man had an amazing oratorical abilities and strong character, which helped him to get to state heights. He attacked clericalism, militarism, and reformism. In each attack he was extremist and violent. His Marxism was greatly influenced by Nietzsche’s reactionary modernism and Social Darwinism, Spengler’s anthropological and historical pessimism, and Sorel’s revolutionary syndicalism.
In November 1914 he founded Popolo d’Italia, the would-be Fascist official newspaper.
In 1919 Mussolini launched his own political party.
In 1921 he organized the National Fascist party with more than 250,000 followers and Mussolini as its uncontested leader, its duce. In October 1922, Mussolini successfully “marched” on Rome.
His capture of power was classic: he was the right national leader at the right historical moment.
Between 1926 and 1929 Mussolini moved to consolidate his regime through the enactment of “the most Fascist laws”. He controlled the press, trade unions, and youth education, centralized the economy.
Mussolini’s creation, the Italian Empire, was announced in 1936.
Benito Mussolini died on April 28, 1945, Lombardy. He was arrested by the partisans and executed along with his mistress Claretta Petacci in a village on Lake Como.
Clara Petacci and Benito Mussolini
There were a lot of women in the life of Italian dictator. Some loved him, others hated. However, only Clara Petacci, Italian with curly hair and large expressive eyes, loved him meekly and devotedly. She was charming. Clara had a perfect figure and was elegant. Moreover, she came from a noble and wealthy family.
Signora Petacci met Mussolini on April 24, 1932 and immediately fell in love with him. At that time Clara was barely twenty years old, but she was already married to a young pilot. Family life did not go well: the husband often drank, was jealous, and once even beat her. An elderly dictator seemed her embodiment of masculinity and strength.
Mussolini was popular among women. They said that the dictator needed a new lover every day. Hundreds of women visited his residence and ardent lover forget them the next morning. However, young Clara was the only woman who evoked tender feelings in him. She idolized Mussolini and considered him a genius.
Soon their relationship became public and Signora Petacci was the most famous Italian of her time.
Clara visited her lover several times a week. When her husband was sent to Japan, she could spend every day with Mussolini in the Palazzo Venezia.
It is believed that several years their relationship was purely platonic. Nevertheless, sensual, extremely emotional and fiery woman demanded faithfulness.
Petacci never interfered in politics, did not want to know about public affairs, and only asked her lover to help friends who had difficulties. Benito could not refuse and gave a huge amount of money for her poor friends, allowed illegally to leave Italy. Always serve and principled Mussolini turned into a completely different person: understanding and patient next to his mistress.
In the middle of the war people became angry with the Italian dictator. Mussolini strongly asked Clara to leave the country without telling anyone about her departure. But she wished to share the fate of Benito.
In the end of April 1945 the former Italian leader escorted by German soldiers headed toward the Austrian border. Clara followed him. Partisans attacked the lovers. The prisoners were taken under guard to the small village of Mezzegra where the lovers spent their first and last night together. The next morning, when the prisoners were to continue their way, some unknown men attacked the guards. The head of the attackers was a known communist who hated Nazis. However, he didn’t want to kill an innocent woman. He stopped the car near Villa Belmonte and asked Mussolini to come out. Clara saw machine gun in the hands of partisan and jumped out of the car. She closed her favorite leader with her own body. Lovers were shot on April 28, 1945. Their bodies were sent to Milan and hanged upside down in the central square.
After the war diaries of Signora Petacci were found, they consisted of 15 volumes, several hundred letters and poems addressed to the Italian dictator.