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Category Archive: Rulers

Gaius Julius Caesar – brilliant Roman general

Gaius Julius Caesar - brilliant Roman general

Gaius Julius Caesar – brilliant Roman general

Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman statesman and political figure, leader and writer, consul, dictator and great pontiff. He helped create the ancient Roman Empire. He was without a doubt the most significant figure in the history of Rome.
In the 60 BC he organized the first triumvirate with two influential politicians – Gnaeus Pompey the Great and Marcus Licinius Crassus. Later he spent more than eight years on the territory of modern Switzerland, France, Belgium, Germany and the UK in the Gallic War. He added a vast territory from the Atlantic to the Rhine to the Roman Republic and became famous as a talented military leader. In addition to the political and military activities Caesar is known as a writer. Due to the simplicity and clarity of style, his works are considered classics of Roman literature and used in teaching Latin language.
Gaius Julius Caesar was born on July 13, 100 BC. It is known that his father was a senator.
He became the head of his family at the age of 16, following the death of his father.
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Ernst Biron – regent of Russia

Ernst Biron - regent of Russia

Ernst Biron – regent of Russia

Ernst Biron was a count, duke of Courland, regent of Russia, imperial favorite. The dark era of foreign dominance is known as Bironovshchina.
Ernst Johann Biron was born on November 23, 1690. He was one of three sons and five daughters.
Ernst rose through court service to Anna Ioanovna in her capacity. He had a great influence on the Empress.
Biron gained status by marriage to Benigna Gotlib Trott von Treyden. The couple had two sons and one daughter.
In 1730 Biron became grand chamberlain and count of the Holy Roman Empire and his wife became lady- in-waiting. His brothers entered the Russian army.
In 1737, with the assistance of Anna Ioanovna, he was elected Duke of Courland. After Anna Ioanovna death on October 17, 1740 Biron became regent for infant Ivan VI.
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Alfred the Great – King of Wessex

Alfred the Great - King of Wessex

Alfred the Great – King of Wessex

Alfred the Great was the King of Wessex in 871-899. He saved part of England from falling under the control of Denmark. At the time, England was divided into several small kingdoms, and Wessex was one of those. He was one of England’s best-loved kings. He established the English monarchy and alone among all English rulers bears the title “the Great.”
Alfred was born in 849 at Wantage, Berkshire. He was the youngest, the fifth son of Ethelwulf, king of Wessex.
After his father’s death in 858, Ethelbald succeeded to the whole kingdom. After his death in 860 his brothers Ethelberht (860-65), then Ethelred (865-71), ruled in turn. During his older brother Ethelred’s reign, Alfred had helped fight off an initial invasion of the Great Army into Wessex. In 871 after the death of Ethelred Alfred became king.
Several English kingdoms fell to the Danes, who were also called Vikings. In 871 and again between 876 and 878 Alfred’s Wessex forces fought against the invaders.
Alfred’s son and grandsons eventually gained control over all of England.
Alfred the Great died on October 26, 899
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Benito Mussolini – Italian dictator

Benito Mussolini – Italian dictator

Benito Mussolini – Italian dictator

Benito Mussolini was an Italian politician and statesman, writer, National fascist party (NFP) leader, the dictator, the leader (Duce), who led Italy as prime minister in 1922-1943. He was the First Marshal of the Empire (30 March 1938). After 1936 his official title was His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Duce of Fascism and the founder of the empire. Mussolini was one of the founders of Italian Fascism. He led Italy into three successive wars, the last of which overturned his regime.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was born on July 29, 1883 in Predappio, Emilia Romagna. His father was a blacksmith and an ardent Socialist, and his mother was a schoolteacher.
In 1900 Mussolini became a member of the Socialist party. In 1901 he took his diploma di maestro and then taught secondary school briefly.
In 1904 Mussolini became engaged in politics. The young man had an amazing oratorical abilities and strong character, which helped him to get to state heights. He attacked clericalism, militarism, and reformism. In each attack he was extremist and violent. His Marxism was greatly influenced by Nietzsche’s reactionary modernism and Social Darwinism, Spengler’s anthropological and historical pessimism, and Sorel’s revolutionary syndicalism.
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Augustus – first Roman emperor

Augustus – first Roman emperor

Augustus – first Roman emperor


Augustus was the first emperor of Rome. His reign became known as the Augustan Age. The Roman world entered an era of wealth, peace, and cultural achievement. He headed the empire for 40 years.
Augustus was born on September 23, 63 BC. His original name was Gaius Octavius. His father held several political offices and had earned a fine reputation. He died when Octavius was 4 years old. His mother, Atia, was Julius Caesar’s niece. The Roman leader, Julius Caesar, before his death in 44 BC had chosen him to be the next leader. From then on he was called Octavian. Octavian’s enemy in his rise to power was Mark Antony.
In 32 Octavian declared war against Queen Cleopatra of Egypt. Octavian won a decisive naval victory, which left him master of the entire Roman world. The following year Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and Octavian annexed Egypt to Rome. According to historians, Octavian’s victory over Antony marked the beginning of the Roman Empire.
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Mao Zedong – Chinese Communist leader

Mao Zedong - Chinese Communist leader

Mao Zedong – Chinese Communist leader

Mao Zedong was a Chinese state and political figure of XX century, the main theoretician of Maoism. Having joined in his youth the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), in 1930s Zedong became the leader of the Communist areas in Jiangxi Province. After the Long March he managed to take the leading positions in the CCP. Mao ruled China from 1949 until 1976.
Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893 in the village of Shaoshan in southeastern China. He was the son of a prosperous farmer from the Hunan Province in central China.
Mao briefly served in the army during the Chinese Revolution (1911-12).
After school he worked as a library assistant at National Beijing University. There he became involved in the May Fourth Movement of 1919.
In July 1921 Mao was one of 12 men who formed the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in Shanghai. He started a communist revolution among peasants in the countryside.
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Alexander II – Russian emperor

Alexander II – Russian emperor

Alexander II – Russian emperor

Alexander II was an emperor of Russia from 1855 to 1881. He is called the ‘‘czar liberator’’ because he emancipated the serfs in 1861.
Alexander Nicholayevich Romanov was born on April 17, 1818 in Moscow. He was the eldest son of Nicholas I. The boy’s principal tutor was Russian poet and courtier, Vasili Zhukovski. Alexander spoke four foreign languages – German, French, English, and Polish.
Alexander traveled extensively in Russia and abroad from an early age. In 1837 Alexander became the first emperor to visit Siberia.
In 1838 Alexander fell in love with a princess from the small German state of Hesse-Darmstadt during his trip to Europe. In April 1841 Alexander married Maria Alexandrovna. They had eight children, two of whom died young.
From 1840 Alexander was a member of the state council and from 1842 of the committee of the ministers.
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