John Paul Jones – Scottish sailor
John Paul Jones was a Scottish sailor who served in the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia. He is most famous for participation in the American Revolutionary War.
Paul Jones was born on July 6, 1747 in Kirkcudbright, Scotland. His father, John Paul Sr., was a gardener, and the mother of the future admiral was Jean Duff. They got married on November 29, 1733 in New Abbey, Kirkcudbright.
John Paul Jr. began naval career at the age of 13 as a cabin boy aboard the Friendship under Captain Benson. The next few years, he sailed on the British merchant ships, including as a third mate in 1764 aboard the King George and the first mate on the Two Friends in 1766.
After a while, he felt an aversion to cruelty in the slave trade, and in 1768 left his prestigious and well-paid position on the ship Two Friends during a stop in Jamaica. He decided to return to Scotland.
During the voyage from Jamaica in 1768, the captain and his assistant suddenly died of yellow fever, and passenger John, as the most experienced sailors on board, had become a captain.
Soon he argued because of the salary with the ship’s carpenter, who was an adventurer from a rich and influential family, and ordered to beat him severely. On the way back home to Scotland carpenter died, and Captain Paul was arrested and taken to Scotland. The court, in spite of the pressure of carpenter’s family, acquitted John. Although this story, Captain Paul soon joined the Masons in Scotland.
At that time, his brother, the owner of an estate in Virginia, died. John Paul left for America to take possession of the inheritance.
In 1773, Paul became a captain in the West Indies. During that time he became rich. However, during the revolt on the ship, he killed one of the rebels. He did not wait for a new trial, and returned to his estate in Virginia.
In 1775 the War of Independence began, and the newly-born rich man, adding to his name “Jones”, offered his services to the marque’s North American colonies.
In 1777, he went to France, where he became friends with the ambassador Benjamin Franklin in 1778, and with him joined the greatest Masonic lodge Nine Sisters.
In August 1779 Paul Jones was promoted to Commander of the Continental fleet, under his command was already five ships under American naval flag and two French marques.
In 1782, Jones captured the British corvette, part of the booty he gave to Congress. King Louis XVI personally handed the captain the Order of Military Merit and a gold sword with diamonds. In 1783, Jones settled in his house in Paris.
On October 16, 1787 he was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.
At this time, the Russian Empress Catherine II invited him to the naval service in Russia. On April 23, 1788 John Paul arrived in St. Petersburg. From the hands of Catherine II, he received a patent for the rank of Rear Admiral. Paul Jones fought against the Turks and helped to defeat the Turkish fleet under Ochakov. On June 29, 1788 he was awarded the Order of St. Anne. However, he had an argument with Potemkin and officers began to weave a web of intrigues against him. In April 1789, John was arrested and charged with raping 12-year-old girl Katerina Goltsvart. The French ambassador at the Russian court was able to prove Potemkin that the charges were fabricated. Despite the events, John wrote a book Narrative of the Campaign of the Liman during this period.
He left the Russian capital on August 18, 1789, angry and disappointed.
In May 1790, he again settled in Paris. In June 1792 Jones was appointed US consul in Algiers.
Paul Jones died on July 18, 1792 in Paris, France. More than 100 years later, U.S. warships carried Jones’s body back to the United States. He was reburied in a tomb at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. His grave was made a national shrine.